The Royal Palace of Naples was built in the early seventeenth century by the Spanish Viceroy Fernando Ruiz de Castro, who commissioned the project to Domenico Fontana. The palace was built in the same place in which he insisted another vice-regal residence, built fifty years before by the viceroy Don Pedro de Toledo. The decision to build the new palace in the same area where once stood the "old", testifies to the importance, therefore, he had the area of the city, which ensured at the same time a certain proximity to the port of the city and a certain ease of escape in case of enemy invasions. The work of building went slowly until 1610, when it was succeeded to the throne of the viceroy Pedro Fernández de Castro, who was also Count of Lemos. 1616 had completed the main facade, on "Building off ," and the courtyard. Around 1620, were also completed some interiors of the palace, painted by Batts Caracciolo, Giovanni Balducci and Belisario Corenzio, and was completed the royal chapel of the Assumption, where he worked twenty-four years after Antonio Picchiatti. In 1734, Charles of Bourbon, the palace became a royal residence borbonica. For three centuries was the seat of monarchical power: the viceroy, the Hapsburgs, Bourbons and, after the unification of Italy of Savoy. It was one of the four residences of the Bourbons of Naples during the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, along with the holding of Capodimonte, Caserta and Portici. The palace overlooks the monumental Piazza del Plebiscito and is surrounded by other impressive buildings such as the palace Salerno, the Basilica of Saint Francis of Paola and the Palace of the Prefecture. The 169 meters of the facade are all the work of Fontana, except for the lower arches in the eighteenth century, to give greater stability to the building, were closed by Vanvitelli. Since 1919, the building houses the Museum of the Historical and National Library. In 1734, Charles of Bourbon, the Bourbon royal palace became the residence. The new king of Naples, on the occasion of his marriage to Maria Amalia of Saxony took place in 1738, did renew some indoor environments, calling the work artists like Francesco De Mura and Domenico Antonio Vaccaro. The modernization work begun in recent years, were resumed more intensely by his son Ferdinand, who in 1768, on the occasion of his marriage to Maria Carolina of Austria, became the great hall of the viceroyalty period, in court theater. Finally, during the first half of the eighteenth century, it was realized that part towards the sea. During the second half of the eighteenth century, was built the so-called "new arm", or the wing of the palace which looks towards the Angevin, which later became the National Library in 1927, Vittorio Emanuele III. During the years 1806-1815 was enriched by Joachim Murat and Carolina Bonaparte with decorations and furnishings neoclassical, from the Tuileries. In 1837 it was damaged by fire and restored between 1838 and 1858 by Gaetano Genovese. During that period were added to the structure of the Wing Parties and a new facade overlooking the sea, characterized by a rusticated basement and a belvedere-tower. All 'angle with the Teatro San Carlo was instead created a small place in front of the Palazzo Vecchio of Don Pedro de Toledo. In 1888, at the behest of Umberto I, the external niches were occupied by gigantic statues of the king of Naples: Roger the Norman, Frederick II, Charles I of Anjou, Alfonso I of Aragon, Charles V, Charles III of Bourbon, Joachim Murat, and Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy. In 1922 it was decided to move the National Library (until then in the building of the Museum); the transfer of library was completed in 1925 The bombing during the Second World War and subsequent military occupation caused serious damage to the building which made it necessary for a restoration.
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